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Creation -The Genesis Account

Carbon Dating Only Works If The Bible Is Rubbish


CARBON DATING EXPLAINED

Carbon Dating Lab Machine Radio Carbon Dating was discovered by Willard Libby in Chicago in 1952, and he also received a Nobel Prize for his work. Carbon Dating is a method of dating samples with the element Carbon in them.

The Theory of Carbon Dating does not take into account the 6,000 year old Earth, the Canopy over the Earth, or Noah's Flood, which are explained in detail on this web site.

  • If Carbon Dating is correct, the Bible is rubbish.
  • If the Bible is true, Carbon Dating is rubbish.
  • There are no other alternatives!

WARNING

The debate over Carbon Dating can become very heated in certain circles, especially on the Internet! We have tried to present the facts as we see them.

Carbon Dating is probably the one subject where open war is declared between Creationists and Evolutionists. Judging by comments about Kent Hovind and other Creationists on the Internet, war is the most suitable word.

The reason is very simple. Either the Bible or Carbon Dating is a fraud. There is no middle ground.

Before writing rude emails to me, please read SCOFFERS on this web site! This information has been compiled by Richard Kent the author of this web site.

FREE GOOGLE VIDEO ABOUT CARBON DATING


1. For a free 2 hour 1 minute video on Carbon Dating please click on this link: Kent Hovind Creation vs Evolution Age of The Earth Does Carbon Dating prove the Bible

2. For a one page summary of Carbon Dating by Kent Hovind please click this link: Creation Science Evangelism - Creation, Evolution, Dinosaurs, and the Bible.

A CREATIONISTS VIEW OF CARBON DATING


Information and images for this section of this web site has been used with the permission of Kent Hovind of www.drdino.com

CARBON IS ONE OF THE 109 ELEMENTS ON THIS PLANET

Periodic Table

Periodic Table of the Elements

There are 109 known elements on Planet Earth, and all matter on this planet is composed of various elements. For example the human body is composed of 17 elements, including Carbon.

NORMAL CARBON 12 AND RADIOACTIVE CARBON 14 ISOTOPES

Carbon Carbon normally exists as the isotope C-12. The normal isotope C-12 has 6 neutrons, 6 protons, and 6 electrons.

There are three main varieties of Carbon atoms, technically called "isotopes". These isotopes are C-12, C-13 and C-14.

Of the three isotopes of Carbon:

  • C-12 makes up 99% of available Carbon.
  • C-13 makes up 1% of available Carbon.
  • C-14 - makes up 1 part per million of available Carbon.

So there is not much C-14 about! Every living thing has a tiny amount of C-14 in it, including every human being.

Atmosphere THE CONTENTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE

The Earth's atmosphere is approximately 100 miles deep. The Earth's atmosphere contains

  • 78% nitrogen
  • 21% oxygen
  • .06% Carbon dioxide
  • .0000765% radio-active Carbon (C14)

The Radioactive Carbon 14 mixes with the normal CO2 in the upper atmosphere, and floats down to ground level, where it is incorporated into plants, animals and humans.

CARBON 14 FORMATION AND INCORPORATION INTO PLANTS, ANIMALS AND HUMAN.

Solar Wind

Radioactive Carbon -14 is formed in the upper atmosphere by the bombardment of Nitrogen atoms with cosmic rays from the Sun.

C14 Decays To CO2

The unstable Radioactive Carbon atom C-14 in the upper atmosphere then combines with Oxygen to form a Carbon Dioxide molecule containing C-14.

C-14 INCORPORATION INTO PLANTS AND ANIMALS

CO2 into plants

The Carbon dioxide molecules, with a tiny amount of Radioactive C-14, become part of the gases in our atmosphere.

Leaf incorporating CO2 and C14

All plants breathe in Carbon Dioxide, and a tiny amount of Radioactive C-14 is incorporated into their structure, using photosynthesis.

During photosynthesis plants breathe in Carbon Dioxide and make it part of their tissue.

Some of the Carbon is Radioactive C-14.

In the presence of sunlight, plants convert Carbon Dioxide and water into starch and Oxygen.

6CO2+6H2O = C6H12O6+6O2

Animals later eat the plants, and incorporate both Carbon 12 and Radioactive Carbon -14 into their tissues.

Humans eat both the plants and the animals, and incorporate a tiny amount of Radioactive Carbon-14 into their tissues.

When a plant or animal dies it stops taking in air and food, so it does not assimilate and more C-14.

The C-14 in the plant or animal then begins to decay back to normal Nitrogen.

HOW DOES CARBON DATING WORK?

Atmospheric Layers Radio Carbon Dating is used to determine the age of samples containing Carbon, by means of measuring the amount of the isotope Carbon-14 (C-14) in any given sample.

The isotope Carbon-14 is Radioactive and the radioactivity may be measured, with a Geiger counter, or a much more sophisticated Carbon Dating machine.

The theory of Carbon Dating assumes that if an observer knows the amount of Radioactive C-14 that is present in a sample, then the date of the sample's origin can be calculated.

Radioactive C-14 atoms decay back to Nitrogen at a known rate. This rate of "decay" is known as the "half-life".

The "half life" of C-14 is 5,730 years.

Carbon 14 Half Life According to Carbon Dating Theory, if a known amount of C-14 is present, then 5,730 years earlier there was twice as much of it, because half of the C-14 has decayed over the preceding 5,730 years.

After another 5,730 years half of the remaining C-14 will decay leaving only ¼ of the original C-14. The Radioactive decay proceeds exponentially from ½ to ¼ to ?, etc.

In theory Carbon -14 never totally disappears, but after about 5 half lives the difference is not measurable with any degree of accuracy.

This is why many people believe that Carbon Dating is only accurate for objects less than 40,000 years old.

  • It is very important to realise this limitation of all Carbon Dating. If anyone says that the Earth is billions of years old, based on Carbon Dating, they obviously do not understand how Carbon Dating works!
  • For example, it is commonly stated by Evolutionists that Life started, by chance, 4 billion years ago, or 4,000,000,000 years ago.
  • This would involve 6.9 million half lives of Radioactive Carbon 14, which simply cannot be measured with any degree of accuracy at all!
  • The Earth's atmosphere contains only 0.0000765% radio-active Carbon -14, and we are talking about tiny quantities of C-14.
  • These tiny differences simply cannot be measured accurately over 6.9 million half lives.

A SIMPLE GUIDE TO THE CARBON DATING MACHINE

Geiger Counter A Geiger counter may be used to detect radio-active elements such as C-14. The image is from Focus on Physical Science 1984 p. 485

For example, one gram of Carbon from living plant material causes a Geiger counter to click 16 times per minute.

It is assumed that a sample that causes 8 clicks per minute on a Geiger counter would be 5,730 years old (the sample has gone through one half life), and so on.

A true Carbon Dating machine is obviously a far more complex machine, but the basic Mathematics and Physics used to interpret the date of the specimen is the same, and involves a number of assumptions discussed below.

THE CARBON DATING MACHINE DOES NOT ACTUALLY DATE ANYTHING

The Carbon Dating machine only provides information about how much Radioactive Carbon-14 is present in a sample of material.

The Carbon Dating machine does not provide an actual date.

The actual date of the specimen is arrived at by an application of the known "half life" of Carbon -14 decay.

Since scientists know that Radioactive Carbon-14 decays over a "half life" of 5,730 years, scientists believe they can date samples of material by interpretation of the quantity of Carbon-14 present, and the known "half life" of 5,730 years.

The Carbon Dating Theory assumes that the Earth is billions of years old, which is a direct contradiction of the Biblical account, as described below.

ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN ORDER FOR CARBON DATING TO WORK

ASSUMPTION 1: RADIOACTIVE CARBON-14 IN THE ATMOSPHERE HAS REACHED EQUILIBRIUM

Explanation of the Equilibrium Point

Equilibrium Point An example of Equilibrium is explained and demonstrated in the diagram.

Imagine you were trying to fill a barrel like with water, but there were holes drilled into the side of the barrel. As you filled the barrel the water would begin leaking out of the holes.

Equilibrium is reached when the amount of water added to the barrel is identical to the amount of water being lost.

This is called the Equilibrium Point.

The Equilibrium Point in Carbon Dating

The amount of Carbon-14 in the atmosphere today is about .0000765%. In Carbon Dating Theory it is assumed that:

  1. The amount of Carbon-14 in the atmosphere is in Equilibrium, and has been in Equilibrium for millions of years.
  2. The formation of new Carbon-14 in the atmosphere is constant, and has been constant for millions of years.
  3. The uptake of Carbon-14 into plants and animals is constant, and has been for millions of years.
  4. The rate of Radioactive decay of Carbon -14 is a constant, with a half life of 5,730 years, and has been for millions of years.
    Scientists generally believe that the Earth is at least 4 billion years old, and Equilibrium must therefore have been reached billions of years ago.

This Equilibrium Point is absolutely fundamental to the application of Carbon Dating Theory. This is discussed below.

ASSUMPTION 2: THE EARTH IS ALREADY BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD

Carbon Dating obviously cannot work if the Equilibrium Point has not yet been reached.

It is assumed in Carbon Dating Theory that the Earth is already billions of years old, and that Equilibrium is not a problem.

It has been calculated that a freshly created Earth would require about 30,000 years for the amount of C-14 in the atmosphere to reach this Equilibrium Point.

According to Jesus Christ, this Universe is only approximately 6,000 years old

  • According to the Bible, the whole Universe and Adam and Eve were created by Jesus Christ, only 6,000 years ago approximately.
  • According to Luke 3: 38, Adam was a son of God, not the son of a monkey
  • Evolution is simply not Biblical.
  • Luke 3: 23-38 describes the 77 generations from Adam to Jesus Christ, spanning approximately 4,000 years (allowing 50 years per generation to allow for the patriarchs).
  • Jesus Christ lived approximately 2,000 years ago.
  • Therefore Adam was created approximately 6,000 years ago.
  • According to Jesus Christ (in Mark 10:6 and Matthew 19:4) Adam was born at the beginning of the Creation.
  • Jesus said, in Mark 10:6, "From the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female", NKJV.
  • Jesus said, in Matthew 19:4, "Have you not read that He who made them at the beginning made them male and female," NKJV.
  • Therefore the Creation was also 6,000 years ago approximately.

This is covered in greater detail in THE UNIVERSE IS ONLY 6,000 YEARS OLD

Therefore a fundamental error has been made by Carbon Dating scientists, unless the Bible is rubbish.

The quantity of Radioactive Carbon-14 in the atmosphere cannot have reached the Equilibrium Point after only 6,000 years, and will not do so until 30,000 years have passed, which is 24,000 years into the future!

Carbon Dating only works if the Bible is rubbish.

ASSUMPTION 3: THE HUGE WATER CANOPY DESCRIBED IN GENESIS CHAPTER ONE DID NOT EXIST

The amount of Radioactive Carbon-14 created in the upper atmosphere would be dramatically altered by the huge Water Canopy described in Genesis Chapter One:

We read in Genesis 1:6-8, "Then God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day."

THE FIRMAMENT (NOW KNOWN AS THE SKY)

Firmament The "firmament" is not a word which we now use, so we need to look carefully to see what God is talking about. Fortunately in Genesis 1:20 it becomes perfectly clear: "Let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens."

So the "firmament" is the sky, where the birds fly. In other words, the sky appeared between the water above the sky, and the water below the sky. After the appearance of the firmament there were three separate layers:

  • Region 1: Water in the stratosphere.
  • Region 2: The sky, where the birds fly.
  • Region 3: Water below the sky, now known as the sea
  • There was therefore, at the original Creation, a water canopy in the stratosphere, above the sky (the firmament).

You will recall that Radioactive Carbon-14 is created in the upper atmosphere by the bombardment of Nitrogen atoms by sunlight.

However, this huge water canopy would have protected the atmosphere of the Earth against this radiation, and nobody knows exactly how much Radioactive Carbon-14 was created before the Flood of Noah.

Carbon Dating therefore discounts Genesis Chapter One completely.

Carbon Dating only works if the Bible is rubbish.

ASSUMPTION 4: THE FLOOD OF NOAH DID NOT HAPPEN 4,400 YEARS AGO

Noah's Flood The Bible indicates that 6,000 years ago the Universe was created, and that 4,400 years ago the Flood of Noah covered the whole Earth for over 1 year.

If any organic material is immersed in water, Radioactive Carbon -14 is leached out.

If the Bible is true, the whole Theory of Carbon Dating is therefore invalidated, because the whole planet was immersed in water, and everything will therefore appear, by Carbon Dating methods, to be very much older than it actually is, based on the quantity of Radioactive Carbon-14 found to be present.

Proponents of Carbon Dating have therefore discount Noah's Flood completely, which completely invalidates their assumptions.

Carbon Dating only works if the Bible is rubbish.

THE CARBON DATING MACHINE DOES NOT ACTUALLY DATE ANYTHING

Carbon-14 Dating rests on the following two assumptions:

  1. The amount of Carbon-14 in the atmosphere has been constant for millions of years.
  2. The rate of decay of Carbon-14 has been constant with, a half life of 5,730 years, for millions of years.

Neither of these assumptions is provable or even reasonable!

The Candle Experiment

Candle Imagine you found a candle burning in a room, and that you want to determine how long the candle was burning before you found it.

You take some measurements. Your observations are that:

  1. The height of the candle is seven inches.
  2. After observing the candle for one hour, we determine that the candle burns at the rate of one inch per hour.

The question is: "How long has the candle been burning?"

The answer is that nobody knows!

  • The candle could have been 12 inches high
    The candle could have been 12 feet high!
    The candle could have been 12 miles high!

Even if we knew how high the candle was when it was lit, we would also have to make other assumptions:

  1. We would have to assume that the rate of burn has always been constant.
  2. We would have to assume that there were no changes in the Oxygen content of the air during the burning of the candle, which would dramatically alter the rate of burning.

Carbon Dating is faced with a similar dilemma

  • No scientist knows that the rate of decay of Carbon-14 has been constant.
  • No scientist knows that the rate of formation of Carbon -14 in the atmosphere has been constant.
  • No scientist knows that the Equilibrium Point has yet been reached.

Carbon Dating only works if the Bible is rubbish.

THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES DEMONSTRATE THAT THE CARBON DATING MACHINE IS NOT ACCURATE

Living mollusk shells were Carbon dated as being 2,300 years old! Science vol. 141, 1963 p. 634-63.

Seal

A freshly killed seal was Carbon dated as having died 1,300 years ago! Antarctic Journal vol. 6 Sept-Oct. 1971 p. 211

Snail

Shells from living snails were Carbon Dated as being 27,000 years old! Science Vol. 224, 1984 p. 58-61

Mammoth

One part of the Vollosovitch mammoth was Carbon Dated at 29,500 years old and another part at 44,000 years old. Troy L. Pewe, Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska, Geological Survey Professional Paper 862 (U.S. Gov. printing office, 1975) p. 30

Baby Frozen Mammoth

One part of Dima (a baby frozen mammoth) was Carbon Dated at 40,000 years old, another part was Carbon Dated at 26,000 years old. The wood immediately around the carcass was Carbon Dated at 9-10,000 years old. Troy L. Pewe, Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska, Geological Survey Professional Paper 862 (U.S. Gov. printing office, 1975) page 30.

The lower leg of the Fairbanks Creek mammoth had a RadioCarbon age of 15,380 radio Carbon years, while its skin and flesh were 21,300 radio Carbon years. Harold E. Anthony, "Natures Deep Freeze," Natural History, Sept. 1949, p. 300, See also: In the Beginning Walt Brown, www.creationscience.com

The two Colorado Creek, AK mammoths had RadioCarbon ages of 22,850 ± 670 and 16,150 ± 230 years respectively., Robert M. Thorson and R. Dale Guthrie, "Stratigraphy of the Colorado Creek Mammoth Locality, Alaska," Quaternary Research, Vol. 37, No. 2, March 1992, pp. 214-228, see also: In the Beginning Walt Brown

Penguin

Living penguins have been Carbon dated as being 8,000 years old.

The above inaccuracies of Carbon Dating demonstrate that Carbon Dating is unreliable for samples of known ages.

Carbon Dating

We seriously wonder why Carbon Dating is assumed to be accurate for samples of an unknown age!

CONCLUSIONS

  • Timeline Carbon Dating only works if the information provided in the Bible is discounted completely.
  • Carbon Dating assumes that the Earth is already at least millions of years old, or the Equilibrium Point would not have been reached.
  • The Bible teaches that the Earth is only 6,000 years old, and the Equilibrium Point has definitely not been reached.
  • Carbon Dating assumes that there was no Canopy of Water in the stratosphere at Creation only 6,000 years ago.
  • The Bible teaches that there was a Canopy of Water in the stratosphere at Creation only 6,000 years ago. This would have dramatically altered the partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere, and the content of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Carbon-14 content of the atmosphere.
  • Firmament Carbon Dating assumes that the Flood of Noah did not happen 4,400 years ago.
  • The Bible states that the Flood of Noah happened 4,400 years ago, which flooded the whole Earth for a whole year. This would have dramatically altered the Radioactive Carbon-14 content of everything on Planet Earth, and therefore renders Carbon Dating completely useless.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



EVERYONE MUST MAKE UP THEIR OWN MIND ABOUT THE ACCURACY, OR OTHERWISE, OF CARBON DATING

Glory Of God

  • Either Carbon Dating is true, and the Bible is rubbish.
  • Or the Bible is true and Carbon Dating is rubbish.
  • They simply cannot both be true!
  • We prefer to believe the Bible and respectfully submit that Carbon Dating is based on totally false assumptions.
  • The inaccuracy of Carbon Dating is revealed in the quoted cases above.